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Gen Z Information Habits:
a Bibliography

My sources for the article "The Secret Digital Behaviors of Gen Z." If you want one and hit a paywall, send me a note and I'll see what I can do.

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Allen, Jennifer, et al. “Evaluating the Fake News Problem at the Scale of the Information Ecosystem.” Science Advances, vol. 6, no. 14, Apr. 2020, p. eaay3539,


Budak, Ceren, et al. “Misunderstanding the Harms of Online Misinformation.” Nature, vol. 630, no. 8015, June 2024, pp. 45–53.


Clifford, William K. “The Ethics of Belief.” Lectures and Essays, edited by Leslie Stephen and Frederick Pollock, Macmillan and Co., 1886.


Hassoun, Amelia, et al. “Practicing Information Sensibility: How Gen Z Engages with Online Information.” Proceedings of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, 2023, pp. 1–17.


Ovadya, Aviv, and Luke Thorburn. Bridging Systems: Open Problems for Countering Destructive Divisiveness Across Ranking, Recommenders, and Governance. Knight First Amendment Institute, Columbia University, 26 Oct. 2023,


Pennycook, Gordon, et al. “On the Belief That Beliefs Should Change According to Evidence: Implications for Conspiratorial, Moral, Paranormal, Political, Religious, and Science Beliefs.” Judgment and Decision Making, vol. 15, no. 4, July 2020, pp. 476–98.


Pennycook, Gordon, and David G. Rand. “The Psychology of Fake News.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 25, no. 5, May 2021, pp. 388–402.


Saltz, Emily, et al. Re-Ranking News Comments by Constructiveness and Curiosity Increases Perceived Respect, Trustworthiness, and Interest. 2024.


Shulman, Hillary C., et al. “Reading Dies in Complexity: Online News Consumers Prefer Simple Writing.” Science Advances, vol. 10, no. 23, June 2024, p. eadn2555.


Swart, Joëlle. “Tactics of News Literacy: How Young People Access, Evaluate, and Engage with News on Social Media.” New Media & Society, vol. 25, no. 3, Mar. 2023, pp. 505–21.


Vraga, Emily K., et al. “Theorizing News Literacy Behaviors.” Communication Theory, vol. 31, no. 1, Feb. 2021, pp. 1–21.


Vraga, Emily K., and Melissa Tully. “News Literacy, Social Media Behaviors, and Skepticism toward Information on Social Media.” Information, Communication & Society, vol. 24, no. 2, Jan. 2021, pp. 150–66.


Xu, Rachel, et al. New Contexts, Old Heuristics: How Young People in India and the US Trust Online Content in the Age of Generative AI. 2405.02522, 3 May 2024,

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