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Anticompetitive Data Centers:
a Bibliography

My sources for the article "Behind the Data Center Boom." If you want one and hit a paywall, send me a note and I'll see what I can do.

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Azoulay, Pierre, et al. Old Moats for New Models: Openness, Control, and Competition in Generative AI. 32474, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2024,


Berk, Gerald, and Annalee Saxenian. “Architectures of Participation.” Issues in Science and Technology, vol. 38, no. 4, July 2022, pp. 62–69.


Berk, Gerald, and AnnaLee Saxenian. “Rethinking Antitrust for the Cloud Era.” Politics & Society, vol. 51, no. 3, Sept. 2023, pp. 409–35,


Byrne, David, et al. “The Rise of Cloud Computing: Minding Your Ps, Qs and Ks.” Measuring and Accounting for Innovation in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Carol Corrado et al., University of Chicago Press, 2021, pp. 519–51,


Carugati, Christophe. The Competitive Relationship Between Cloud Computing and Generative AI. 19/2023, Bruegel, 11 Dec. 2023,


Chandler, Alfred D. “The Railroads: Pioneers in Modern Corporate Management.” Business History Review, vol. 39, no. 1, 1965, pp. 16–40,


Ewens, Michael, et al. “Cost of Experimentation and the Evolution of Venture Capital.” Journal of Financial Economics, vol. 128, no. 3, June 2018, pp. 422–42,


Glode, Vincent, and Guillermo Ordoñez. Technological Progress and Rent Seeking. 32359, National Bureau of Economic Research, Apr. 2024, p. w32359,


Huang, Pei, et al. “A Review of Data Centers as Prosumers in District Energy Systems: Renewable Energy Integration and Waste Heat Reuse for District Heating.” Applied Energy, vol. 258, Jan. 2020, p. 114109,


Investigation of Competition in Digital Markets - Majority Staff Report and Recommendations. US House of Representatives Subcommittee on Antitrust, Commercial and Administrative Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, 2020, p. 450,


Lancieri, Filippo, and Patricia Morita Sakowski. Competition in Digital Markets: A Review of Expert Reports. 303, University of Chicago Booth School of Business, Stigler Center for the Study of the Economy and the State, Oct. 2020,


Lemley, Mark A., and Matthew Wansley. “Coopting Disruption.” SSRN Electronic Journal, 2024,


Oettl, Alexander, et al. Creative Destruction? Impact of E-Commerce on the Retail Sector. 30077, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2022,


Rikap, Cecilia. Dynamics of Corporate Governance Beyond Ownership in AI. Common Wealth, 14 May 2024,


Rikap, Cecilia, and Bengt-Åke Lundvall. The Digital Innovation Race: Conceptualizing the Emerging New World Order. Springer International Publishing, 2021,


Rogers, Adam. “Big Tech’s Inside Job.” Business Insider, 1 Apr. 2024,


Sheehan, Michael F. “Land Speculation in Southern California: The Roles of Railroads, Trolley Lines and Autos.” The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, vol. 41, no. 2, Apr. 1982, pp. 197–197,

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