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Bike Lanes Are Good: A Bibliography

My sources for the article "Bike lanes are good for business." This is more than just the economics articles; it's everything I think is relevant. If you want one and hit a paywall, send me a note and I'll see what I can do.

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Arancibia, Daniel, et al. “Measuring the Local Economic Impacts of Replacing On-Street Parking With Bike Lanes: A Toronto (Canada) Case Study.” Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 85, no. 4, Oct. 2019, pp. 463–81,


Bent, Elizabeth M., and Krute Singa. “Modal Choices and Spending Patterns of Travelers to Downtown San Francisco, California: Impacts of Congestion Pricing on Retail Trade.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, vol. 2115, no. 1, Jan. 2009, pp. 66–74,


Blackwell, Angela Glover. “The Curb-Cut Effect.” Stanford Social Innovation Review, winter 2017,


Buehler, Ralph, and John Pucher. “Cycling through the COVID-19 Pandemic to a More Sustainable Transport Future: Evidence from Case Studies of 14 Large Bicycle-Friendly Cities in Europe and North America.” Sustainability, vol. 14, no. 12, June 2022, p. 7293,


Clifton, Kelly, et al. Consumer Behavior and Travel Choices: A Focus on Cyclists and Pedestrians. 2013.


Cox, Susan Jane Buck. “No Tragedy on the Commons.” Environmental Ethics, vol. 7, spring 1985, pp. 49–62.


Credit, Kevin, and Elizabeth Mack. “Place-Making and Performance: The Impact of Walkable Built Environments on Business Performance in Phoenix and Boston.” Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, vol. 46, no. 2, Feb. 2019, pp. 264–85.


Dill, Jennifer, and Theresa Carr. “Bicycle Commuting and Facilities in Major U.S. Cities.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, vol. 1828, no. 1, Jan. 2003, pp. 116–23. Zotero,


Drennen, Emily. Economic Effects of Traffic Calming on Urban Small Businesses. 2003. San Francisco State University,


Fitch, Dillon, et al. Bicyclist Behavior in San Francisco: A Before-and-After Study of the Impact of Infrastructure Investments. National Center for Sustainable Transportation, Aug. 2016,


Fonseca-Sarmiento, Camila. Assessing the Economic Effects of Context-Sensitive Main Street Highways in Small Cities. 2022–33, Minnesota Department of Transportation, Sept. 2022,


Hass-Klau, Carmen. “Impact of Pedestrianization and Traffic Calming on Retailing: A Review of the Evidence from Germany and the UK.” Transport Policy, vol. 1, no. 1, Oct. 1993, pp. 21–31,


Jeffe, Eric. “The Complete Business Case for Converting Street Parking Into Bike Lanes.” Bloomberg CityLab, 13 Mar. 2015.


Kariuki-Cobbett, Juliette, et al. The Environmental, Social, and Economic Benefits of Sustainable Travel to Local High Streets and Town Centres. Climate Exchage, May 2023,


Kirschner, Franziska. “Parking and Competition for Space in Urban Neighborhoods: Residents’ Perceptions of Traffic and Parking-Related Conflicts.” Journal of Transport and Land Use, vol. 14, no. 1, June 2021, pp. 603–23,


Knoflacher, H. “A New Way to Organize Parking: The Key to a Successful Sustainable Transport System for the Future.” Environment and Urbanization, vol. 18, no. 2, 2006, pp. 387–400,


Lea, Nancy Smith, et al. Economic Impact Study of Bike Lanes in Toronto’s Bloor Annex and Korea Town Neighbourhoods. Clean Air Partnership, 2019.


Lee, Alison, and Alan March. “Recognising the Economic Role of Bikes: Sharing Parking in Lygon Street, Carlton.” Australian Planner, vol. 47, no. 2, June 2010, pp. 85–93,


Litman, Todd Alexander. “Economic Value of Walkability.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, vol. 1828, no. 1, Jan. 2003, pp. 3–11,


Liu, Jenny, and Wei Shi. Understanding Economic and Business Impacts of Street Improvements for Bicycle and Pedestrian Mobility: A Multi-City, Multi-Approach Exploration. NITC-RR-1031/1161, Transportation Research and Education Center, 2020,


McCormick, Cullen. York Boulevard: The Economics of a Road Diet. UCLA, 2012,


McCoy, Raleigh, et al. “Bikes or Bust? Analyzing the Impact of Bicycle Infrastructure on Business Performance in San Francisco.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, vol. 2673, no. 12, Dec. 2019, pp. 277–89.


Millard-Ball, Adam. “The Width and Value of Residential Streets.” Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 88, no. 1, Jan. 2022, pp. 30–43,


Monsere, Chris, et al. Lessons from the Green Lanes: Evaluating Protected Bike Lanes in the U.S. NITC-RR-583, National Institute for Transportation and Communities, June 2014.


O’Connor, David, et al. “Shopping Travel Behaviour in Dublin City Centre.” Proceedings of the ITRN 2011, 2011.


Poirier, Joseph A. “Bicycle Lanes and Business Success: A San Francisco Examination.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, vol. 2672, no. 7, Dec. 2018, pp. 47–57.


Pooley, Colin. “Walking Spaces: Changing Pedestrian Practices in Britain since c. 1850.” The Journal of Transport History, vol. 42, no. 2, June 2021, pp. 227–46. SAGE Journals,


Popovich, Natalie, and Susan L. Handy. “Bicyclists as Consumers: Mode Choice and Spending Behavior in Downtown Davis, California.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, vol. 2468, no. 1, Jan. 2014, pp. 47–54,


Rijo, Stephen Antonio. Economic and Traffic Impacts Following the Installation of New Bicycle Facilities: A Denver Case Study. 2015. University of Denver, Masters,


Rogers, Adam. “The Design and Science of Patio Dining During a Pandemic.” Wired, 17 June 2020. www.wired.com


---. “The Pandemic Might Have Redesigned Cities Forever.” Wired, 30 Dec. 2021. www.wired.com


Rossmore, Graham. Dining or Parking? Managing the Curb During COVID-19 and Beyond: An Analysis of the L.A. Al Fresco Program. 2023–49, UCLA Institute of Transportation Studies, 16 June 2023.,


Rowe, Kyle. Bikenomics: Measuring the Economic Impact of Bicycle Facilities on Neighborhood Business Distiricts. University of Washington College of Built Environments, 19 July 2013,


Schultheiss, William, et al. “A Historical Perspective on the AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities and the Impact of the Vehicular Cycling Movement.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, vol. 2672, no. 13, Dec. 2018, pp. 38–49,


Shill, Gregory H. “Should Law Subsidize Driving?” New York University Law Review, vol. 95, no. 2, May 2020, pp. 498–579,


Shoup, Donald C. “Cruising for Parking.” Transport Policy, vol. 13, no. 6, Nov. 2006, pp. 479–86,


---. “Cruising for Parking.” Access, no. 30, Nov. 2007, pp. 16–22,


---. “The High Cost of Free Parking.” Journal of Planning Education and Research, vol. 17, no. 1, Sept. 1997, pp. 3–20,


Stantec Consulting, et al. Vancouver Separated Bike Lane Business Impact Study. Vancouver Economic Development Commission, 20 July 2011,


Stehlin, John. “Cycles of Investment: Bicycle Infrastructure, Gentrification, and the Restructuring of the San Francisco Bay Area.” Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, vol. 47, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. 121–37,


Szabo, Eva, et al. Bike Lanes, On-Street Parking and Business. Cycle Toronto Ward 14 Advocacy Group, Nov. 2016,


Telegraph Avenue Progress Report. Oakland Department of Transportation, Jan. 2017,


The Economic Benefits of Sustainable Streets. NYC Department of Transportation, 13 Jan. 2014,


Volker, Jamey M. B., and Susan Handy. “Economic Impacts on Local Businesses of Investments in Bicycle and Pedestrian Infrastructure: A Review of the Evidence.” Transport Reviews, vol. 41, no. 4, July 2021, pp. 401–31,


Von Schneidemesser, Dirk, and Jody Betzien. “Local Business Perception vs. Mobility Behavior of Shoppers: A Survey from Berlin.” Findings, June 2021,


Weisbrod, Glen, and Henry O. Pollakowski. “Effects of Downtown Improvement Projects on Retail Activity.” Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 50, no. 2, June 1984, pp. 148–61,


Wild, Kirsty, et al. “Beyond ‘Bikelash’: Engaging with Community Opposition to Cycle Lanes.” Mobilities, vol. 13, no. 4, July 2018, pp. 505–19.


Yu, Chia-Yuan, et al. “Assessing the Economic Benefits and Resilience of Complete Streets in Orlando, FL: A Natural Experimental Design Approach.” Journal of Transport & Health, vol. 8, Mar. 2018, pp. 169–78.

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